This is grisly stuff. If you can’t stomach horror, you shouldn’t read any further. It is about a time much before anesthesia, pain killers, and antiseptics were invented or offered and when surgeries were mostly performed on conscious patients among blood, screams and often spectators. I find it painful to get my eyebrows plucked. I don’t know how people could bear the pain of an amputation then or how surgeons could perform the nightmarish surgeries. Sometimes, we should be thankful for the gifts of modern medicine.